What is migraine?
Migraine is a clinical syndrome that has been present for many years in the patient’s life, with pain attacks lasting from several hours to several weeks, with many accompanying symptoms and no headache complaints between the attacks. During attacks of migraine patients, quality of life is low compared to the general population. People with migraine in their families have a higher risk of migraine in their children than in society. Migraine, which is a disease in which genetic and environmental factors play a role, is not a disease with the pure genetic transmission. There are two main subtypes: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Migraine with aura, which constitutes 10% of migraine attacks, is characterized by transient sensory symptoms such as hallucinations, blurred vision, flashes, or scotoma in the field of vision known as zig-zag lines approximately one hour before the development of headache. It can also occur with other symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, tingling, weakness in the arms and legs, loss of sensation, and intertwining of words.
Although the causes of migraine on the horse are enlightened, the causes are still not fully understood. Genetic, central, vascular, and neuronal causes of migraine, biochemical and physiological risk factors prepare the ground for migraine. Trigger factors facilitate the emergence of migraine. Genetic transmission of migraine is seen in migraine with aura; Migraine without aura is explained by the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Migraine is a type of headache caused by changes in the nerves and blood vessels in the brain. Individuals with migraine have a nervous system that is susceptible to attacks and attacks may be triggered by some external factors. When an attack is triggered, the so-called migraine generator in the brain is activated. This leads to the dilation of blood vessels in the brain and inflammation of the nerves. They then activate the trigeminal nerve in the brain, which will cause pain and other symptoms during the attack, and migraine occurs.
What are the symptoms of migraine?
Although migraine is known only as a headache attack, it has many different periods from the beginning to the end. Migraine attacks begin with the prodrome period. In this period, the presence of depressive or wandering mood increased sensitivity, stagnation, dullness, slowness in thoughts, difficulty in finding words, lack of concentration and attention, as well as neuro-psychological symptoms such as neck stiffness, swelling sensation that occurred during the hours before the onset of pain. symptoms of constipation or diarrhea, fatigue, increased or lost appetite, excessive thirst, and frequent urination. After the prodrome period, the aura period begins. This period develops in approximately 5 to 20 minutes and usually ends in 60 minutes. In addition to visual symptoms, it is also manifested by feelings such as numbness, prickling, tingling in one part of the body, part of the face and tongue. The period of pain usually begins with discomfort, weight and vague pain that begins on the nape, back of the head and one side of the head. After about 30 minutes to 120 minutes, severe, throbbing and pressure-producing pain is felt, which can last for hours or even 2-3 days. During this period, typically in two-thirds of patients, the severity of pain on one side of the head may be variable.
Although 20% of migraine patients have pain on the same side, they usually spread from the neck to the entire head. Pain is accompanied by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and in some patients, these symptoms lead to more complaints. Usually, the patient’s pain relieves near sleep. In the postdrome period known as post-pain, there is a feeling of exhaustion, irritability and fatigue, and a feeling of relief occurs with reduced pain. Some people have a desire to eat dessert or urinate frequently. The presence of one or more of these features also clarifies the diagnosis of migraine.
Factors triggering migraine
In the treatment of migraine, it is very important to know the factors triggering migraine attacks by the patient and to recognize and avoid preventable attacks. Avoiding only trigger factors can lead to a significant reduction in the number of attacks. Although migraine attacks often occur spontaneously, internal and external trigger factors also cause some attacks to occur. Although the triggering factors that accelerate the occurrence of migraine attacks vary from person to person, they can be listed as follows:
- Meal Skipping
- Sleep disorders and disorder
- Powerful light
- Menstruation period
- Height changes
- Air exchange and pollution
- Strong scents like perfume
- Cheese and other dairy products
- Tea and coffee consumption
- sea products
- Fried fatty foods
- Alcohol and cigarette consumption
- Cigarette smoke
What is good for migraine?
Regular nutrition and sleep are elements that prevent the occurrence of migraine. In addition, knowing and avoiding the triggers of migraine reduces the frequency of migraine attacks.
Migraine treatment is divided into medicated and non-medicated treatment:
- Drug Treatment: Drugs used in acute attacks aim to reduce the severity of pain and other symptoms completely or eliminate them, shorten the duration of the attack and improve the quality of life with the aim of effective and rapid treatment. At this point, the drugs are prescribed by the specialist physician according to the patient’s history and examination. In addition to this, the physician is expected to reduce the frequency, duration and severity of attacks by organizing prophylactic treatment; aims to prevent acute attacks to occur. Preventive treatment is given to some patients who have 2 or more attacks per month or 4 or more painful days per month, attacks are becoming more frequent, and quality of life is reduced by long-term pain. The treatment given by the physician should be used regularly with the specified dose and duration.
- Non-Drug Therapy: The patient is thoroughly informed by the neurology physician about his or her illness. Relaxation techniques, exercise, regular sleep and regular nutrition and regulation of lifestyle are recommended. It is explained that trigger factors such as diet, light, air, elevation and hormonal changes should be recognized and avoided.
Medications for migraine
Migraine medications prescribed by a neurologist and used in the treatment of attacks usually consist of simple and combined analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, triptans, ergot derivatives, anti-emetic and neuroleptics. As a preventive treatment, beta blockers, antidepressants, antiepileptics and serotonin antagonists, calcium channel blockers, and botulinum toxin type A are composed of drugs. Do not forget to have regular check-ups for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.